In 2012 the total population of the whole of the Lake Chad basin was estimated at 45 million inhabitants (37 million in 2002, according to the UNDP), with the majority living in cities. The population growth rate is high, standing at between 1.5% and 3.7% per year, depending on the country. Population densities are higher in Nigeria and in lakeside areas, but fall away in the northern, more arid areas of the basin. Population pressure is most evident in the rapid urbanisation occurring in places like Kano and Maiduguri in Nigeria and N’Djamena in Chad. Wealth distribution is highly uneven within the countries of the Lake Chad basin. Some of these countries do, in fact, earn high incomes but fail to effectively combat the poverty that is holding them back. These recent years have seen the rise in the number of political or religious conflicts around the lake Chad, fiefdom of Boko Haram, and more generally in the lake Chad basin.